Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Bat Review Paper Essay on The Bat Funny Detective regional studies, from which we can learn about how well off gays in Australia. On the other side of the world, in Australia, it is the murder of the young Norwegians Inger. Mutilated corpse was found on the rocks a beautiful park, and of the distant and not so warm Norwegian discharged investigator Harry Hall to help the investigation and just unwind. The trip, as well as the genre requires, is not a vacation. As I notice, talk about the mysteries difficult because afraid of inadvertently reveal something significant relating to the intrigue. But a good detective story, namely, such is the debut novel by Jo NesbÃ ¸, contains much more than the input data for the investigation, so to talk about -. There First, Jo NesbÃ ¸ great game with the text as a material. Almost every character we meet throughout the book tells the story of didactic, often taken from Australian folklore. Each of voiced myths has a hidden meaning. Secondly, Jo NesbÃ ¸ willing to entertain the reader, distorting the usual scheme of literary works. So, for example, the investigator Harry Hole, is the main character, throughout the first half of the book does not claim to its rightful place. And even downright supplanted with honorary pedestal Australian partner Andrew Kensington. Fascinating and charming Kensington is so bright and interesting character, Holly, at first, it looks like a gray mouse on his background. Third, it is really Cultural book. The author not only describes in detail the modern Sydney, pandemonium of the natives, white, New Zealand and settled tourists from around the world, but also depicts the Australian outback. Talks about the social problems of modern Australia, the successor to th e white mans burden. Fourth, with love applies to each of his characters. Each has its own history, its own way. Everyone might not mandatory, but accurate, pleasant and pronounced smear in the overall picture. Fifth, if you like stories about the skeletons in the closet, and I love them, this stuff here in bulk. At the main character of their not that car and small truck their skeletons hold on a rolling stock We will write a custom essay sample on The Bat Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Bat Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Bat Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer But, most importantly, what I want to say -. This detective immerses the reader in an incredibly pleasant atmosphere tranquility and peace of mind. It all characters, including villains frank, cause the reader sympathy. Long time since I have not read the works in which for every character to be treated with a warm feeling, and not immediately get the label hero, bastard, dark maelstrom and other. A little later, frank scoundrels appear, and it was then necessary to change the attitude, but it later. Initially, you almost each of the characters want to be on friendly terms. Moreover, this is done on purpose. The answer to the question why the author chooses such an optimistic strategy is the following dialogue: - The question whether Evans White is telling the truth said Harry Andrew turned to make way. tractor -.. Harry, let me share with you an experience of over twenty years, I talk with people who have a variety of motives to lie to me, or to tell the truth from the guilty and the innocent, murderers and pickpockets, with neurotics. and phlegmatic, with a blue-eyed babies and hardened scoundrels, with sociopaths, psychopaths, philanthropist E Andrew tried to find some more examples of -.! Point taken, Andrew -. black and white, they all sat down and told me their stories with the sole purpose -.? to believe them and know what conclusion I came What is impossible to determine when they lie, and when there is no -. In point, Harry! said Andrew -. In the classical detective any self-respecting detective with accuracy determines when a person is lying nonsense.! Human nature dense forest that will never know until the end. Even her mother does not know the innermost secrets of her child . And finally. Not enough space in the book is dedicated to boxing. And, as a skilled boxer, Jo NesbÃ ¸ at the end does the reader a good, go ahead with the legs kick. Strike painful . Beat that kind of expected, but missed. The blow, because of which from the lungs out all the air. The blow to the gut. Bravo! Interestingly, and symbolically the name of the book. As we learn from the text, bat (genus of bats) the personification of evil in the sacred mythology of Australian aborigines and you can not argue with the fact that our protagonist is not about. the investigating another police matter, but once again he comes into the fight against evil. PS While driving off other mythological overtones, for me, quite cute animal. Read affair Jo NesbÃ ¸
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
15 Things You Should Never Say at Work Ever wonder what sets successful people apart in the workplace? They always seem to stand head and shoulders above the fray. Part of that is class and style. And part of that is knowing what to say, when to say it, and- more importantly- what not to say. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a list of 15Ã thingsÃ you shouldÃ never sayÃ in the workplace.1. Anything that remotely seems like gossipGossip is no good. It takes your focus and energy off doing your best work and can also be seen as petty and vindictive. Keep your eyes on your own desk and life and watch your social capital rise.2. Anything that seems like an excuseIf you canÃ¢â¬â¢t do something, donÃ¢â¬â¢t offer. And constant apologizing for being late or disrupting meetings? That only draws attention to the fact that you screwed up in the first place. Instead, donÃ¢â¬â¢t screw up. Make it a personal policy never to be late.3. Ã¢â¬Å"NoÃ¢â¬ Successful people are a little bit fearless, and a lot ambitious. They may not always make g uarantees, but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t immediately say Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ either. Try, fail, try harder. Fail, fail better. Succeed.4. Complaints about the systemIf youÃ¢â¬â¢re bumping up against the work system and itÃ¢â¬â¢s curbing your style and your potential, ask yourself first if that particular obstacle is there for good. If it is, put your brain into figuring out how to work around it. If it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, try to change it. Complaints wonÃ¢â¬â¢t help in either case.5. Complaints about workloadMore work = more achievement = more success. Never complain about how much work you have. Get it done, then ask for more. And do it because it is a joy to do it, and to set yourself apart.6. Personal stuffSuccessful people keep work talk on work. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s less complicated and more productive. And they can remain a bit of a mystery.7. Anything that makes you seem negativeDonÃ¢â¬â¢t be mean to your colleagues. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t tease them. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be petty. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t engage in gossip . Keep your head above the fray and be nice to your colleagues and underlings. Avoid controversy. Keep your good name squeaky clean.8. Money stuffNever brag about your salary. And donÃ¢â¬â¢t show off your fancy toys. Stick to encouraging equal footing among your colleagues, and value talent, productivity, and hard work. Keep talk of money out of your office entirely.9. Your goalsSuccessful people rarely broadcast their goals. It not only adds to the pressure on them to achieve them, it keeps them from unnecessary scrutiny. And when they do succeed, the degree of their accomplishment gets to take people by surprise.10. Ã¢â¬Å"Me, me, meÃ¢â¬ ¦and more about meÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The best way to win people over is not to constantly talk about yourself. Listen and show genuine interest in your coworkers. Win hearts subtly and be genuine. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not all about you.11. Ã¢â¬Å"I might just give upÃ¢â¬ Successful people donÃ¢â¬â¢t even consider giving up. They think outside the box and find another way. But if they do consider it, theyÃ¢â¬â¢d never say it out loud. Not even to themselves. Devote your energy to finding solutions.12. Ã¢â¬Å"I know enoughÃ¢â¬ Successful people never say no to a learning opportunity. And they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel bashful about admitting what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know and allowing someone to teach them. A strong desire to learn is what keeps successful people on top of their personal wave.13. Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t helpÃ¢â¬ Successful people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t ashamed to ask for help when they need it. And they always try to help someone out when they are asked for help. This is a great networking strategy as well.14.Ã Anything just for the sake of kissing up to someonePleasing other people should never be your motive. Be excellent. Be genuine. Win people over with your best qualities, not some idea of what you think they want to hear. And avoid trying to take shortcuts or sweeten up the boss by any other means. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s transparent and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t reflect well on you.15. Offensive jokesOffensive comments are wrong, but so are offensive jokes. Something offensive said in jest is still offensive. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be rude. Be sensitive to the needs and feelings of others. And keep control of your emotions; that will keep you above the fray.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
St. Dominic essays Dominic de Guzman was born in Calarago, Spain, in 1170. His parents were Joan of Anza and Felix de Guzman. Before his mother conceived him, she saw in a vision that a dog with a burning torch in its mouth would come forth from her womb and set the world aflame. At his baptism, his grandmother saw a star on his forehead. As a student, he sold his books to feed the poor in a famine, and offered himself in ransom for a slave. At the age of twenty-five he became superior of the Canons Regular of Osma, and accompanied his Bishop to France. There the ravages of the Albigensian heresy broke his heart, and his life was from now on devoted to the conversion of heretics and the defense of his faith. For this end he established his threefold religious Order. The convent for nuns was founded first, to rescue young girls from heresy and crime. Then a company of apostolic men gathered around him, and became the Order of Friar Preachers. Lastly came the Tertiaries, persons of both sexes living in the world. God blessed the new Order, and France, Italy, Spain, and England welcomed the Preaching Friars. Our Lady took them under her special protection, and whispered to St. Dominic as he preached. It was in 1208, while St. Dominic knelt in the little chapel of Notre Dame de la Prouille and prayed to the Mother of God to save the Church, Mary appeared to him, gave him the Rosary, and bade him go forth and preach. He revived the courage of the Catholic troops, led them to victory against overwhelming numbers, and finally crushed the heresy. His nights were spent in prayer; and, though pure as a virgin, thrice before morning broke, he scourged himself to blood. His words rescued many souls, and three times raised the dead to life. At length, on August 6, 1221, at the age of 51, Dominic de Guzman died. One symbol of his life is the star. Again, by his life and preaching, Dominic became a beacon light, guiding souls to Christ. In his s...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Free Trade and Industrial Zones in the UAE - Research Paper Example The establishment of free trade and industrial zones may well be considered as a unique step which other Middle Eastern countries have not yet emulated. The UAE has proven though that there are advantages gained for diversifying through such approach. Two very successful free trade zones, Jabel Ali Free Zone Area (JAFZA) and Dubai Airport Free Zone Area (DAFZA), have contributed significantly to the economy. Indeed, free trade zones are not without its share of problems and these also have negative impact to the economy. Nevertheless, the benefits far outweigh the costs. JAFZA has made very relevant contributions to the UAEÃ¢â¬â¢s economy since its establishment. In fact, its share in the DubaiÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is very strategic. It accounts for more than 25 per cent of the total trade being conducted in the city. In just 25 years, it saw the establishment of many companies in its vicinity. The year 2010 is considered as its most successful year. By the end of this year, there were 480 companies that set up facilities in the area. 55 of these are multinationals and were draw by JAFZAÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"customer focused value proposition that brings together products, all relevant services as well as value added benefits under one roof to form an ecosystem that is conducive to businessÃ¢â¬ (Banga, 2011). The entry of such investments has, in turn, benefited the UAE in more ways than one. It is one of the entities that continue to fuel the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, resulting in UAEÃ¢â¬â¢s distinction as one of the countries in the region with the most stable economies. JAFZA has been a major factor in increasing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product. This is proven by information from the International Monetary Fund and the Dubai Statistics Department which says that Ã¢â¬Å"growth over the last 15 years in the number of companies at JAFZA are 3 times that of theÃ UAEÃ GDP, and that it outpaced the rate of growth of Dubai's GDP by nearly one and a hal f timesÃ¢â¬ (AME Info, 2010). It is not just in the area of investments that the UAE has benefited from the operations of JAFZA. The Free Zone has also created thousands of jobs for the locals and for migrant workers. In 2001, there were about 40,000 people employed in the companies operating in it but this number further increase in meteoric fashion that by 2010, a workforce of 115,000 was achieved (Banga, 2011). JAFZA has definitely been very advantageous to the emirates. Despite the positive contributions though, the existence of JAFZA and free trade zones, in general, has negative repercussions as well. Per free trade zone rules, the companies that operate here are not required to comply with the laws of the UAE regarding visa requirements, employment, and labour market nationalization. With such freedoms, foreign investors can develop flexible labour schemes that may guarantee higher profits without fear of government intervention to protect the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights. Hence , this puts the workers in the free zones at a disadvantageous position. While the companies within the premises of the free zone earn bigger, they also enjoy tax holidays or exemptions. JAFZA, similar to other free trade zones elsewhere, guarantee that Ã¢â¬Å"multinational companies enjoy full ownership and profit repatriation within the confines of the free-trade zonesÃ¢â¬ (Kanna, 2011, p.142). This means that the country does not get any share in the profits generated through the operations of the foreign companies existing in
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Different Perspectives On Change Within Organisations - Case Study Example The forms of change as part of the organizational activity are not standardized; they are likely to be differentiated under the influence of the internal and external organizational environment and the business goals and vision. The different perspectives on change within organizations are critically discussed in this paper. Emphasis is given on the reasons of this phenomenon but also on the role of the members of the organization in the potential expansion of the problem. It is concluded that change, as an element of the organizational environment is unavoidable; in fact, in many cases, organizational change is quite necessary in order to enhance organizational performance. However, the development of extensive disputes in regard to the change management practices used within organizations could result in severe organizational crisis. 2. Change in modern organizations 2.1 Description of organizational change In the context of organizational environment, the term change is used in or der to describe a wide range of issues (activities and ideas); in certain cases, the above term is combined with other terms in order to make its role clear; an indicative example is term Ã¢â¬Ëconsistency of changeÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bradford et al. ...2005, p.196). Another important characteristic of organizational change is that it is likely to be promoted within each organization using different techniques; an indicative example is the Ã¢â¬Ëunfreeze-change-refreeze modelÃ¢â¬â¢ (Holbeche 2006, p.234) which is based on the principle that in order for a plan of change to be successfully implemented within a particular organization it would be necessary to delete primarily the mechanisms which prevent the development of change within the organization, then the change can be implemented and the deleted mechanisms could be re-established Ã¢â¬â or, alternatively, new ones could be established taking into consideration the changes in the organizational operations because of the implementa tion of the relevant plan of change. At this point, reference could be made to the study of Weick and Quinn (1999) who referred to Ã¢â¬Ëthe episodic change Ã¢â¬â the change which occurs at specific points of time Ã¢â¬â and the continuous change Ã¢â¬â a process which is likely to take place continuouslyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Anderson 2009, 62) Ã¢â¬â or at least, at such frequency that there can be no issue of episodic change. In terms of the time of its implementation, a plan of change needs to be carefully reviewed; this issue is highlighted in the study of Holbeche (2006) where it is noted that if changes are not introduced on time within a particular organization, i.e. immediately when relevant organizational needs are identified, then this delay would result to the need for major changes in the future (Holbeche 2006, 5); in other words, organizational changes cannot be avoided; they can be only delayed.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Early Marriage in South Asia Essay Early marriage affects millions of children through the world. It is widely practiced in the countries of South Asia where every year millions of girls-preteens and teens- become the wives of older men. Young girls are married when they are still children and as a result are denied fundamental human rights. Early marriage compromises their development and often results in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. Required to perform heavy amounts of domestic work, under pressure to demonstrate fertility, married girls and child mothers face constrained decision-making and reduced life choices. Both boys and girls are affected by child marriage but the issue impacts girls in far larger numbers, with more intensityÃ¢â¬âand is wide ranging. Early marriage, better known as child marriage, is defined as marriage carried below the age of 18 years, Ã¢â¬Å"before the girl is physically, physiologically and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and child bearingÃ¢â¬ . Many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage. Parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. Strong correlations between a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s age at marriage and the level of education she achieves, the age at which she gives birth to her first child and the age of her husband have been well documented. Early marriage means also the individual becomes sexually active early, raising children while children themselves. The marriage of a young girl affects not only her life but that of the children she will bear. Early marriage is by no means a new phenomenon. It is a socially established practice that has been carried on from generation to generation. This is despite the existence of international and regional instruments that all the States in South Asia have ratified. Governments in the region also settled upon 18 as the minimum legal age at marriage. However, they are often either unable to enforce existing laws, or rectify discrepancies between national laws and customary and religious laws. Most often, child marriage is considered as a family matter and governed by religion and culture, which ensure its continuity. It remains therefore a widely ignored violation of the rights of girls and women and exposes them to multiple risks, including to sexual abuse and exploitation. Compiled from a study undertaken by Mira, B. AGHI, this paper examines early marriage in the region in order to offer information for analysis and discussion. The Prevalence Of Early Marriage In South Asia It is very difficult to get accurate data on the true extent of early marriages. This is because most marriages are not officially registered, and many parents resort to falsifying girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ ages. Such acts are made easier in rural areas where birth certificates are often non-existent or not properly recorded. There is also very little data on girls married before the age of 15. Available data are often outdated and fail to provide adequate information. Although early marriage is said to be declining in many parts of the world, the total number of girls at risk or affected is very significant and cannot be ignored. It is estimated there are worldwide more than 51 million adolescent girls aged 15Ã¢â¬â19 who are married and bearing the burden of domestic responsibility and the risks associated with early sexual activity, including pregnancy. In South Asia in 2005, 48% (nearly 10 million) of young women were married before the age of 18. Figure 1 Child marriage, 1987 Ã¢â¬â 2006. (% of women 20-24 years of age that were married or in union before they were 18 years old) [pic] Despite a shift towards later marriages in many parts of the world, in the countries of South Asia a majority of girls still marry before age 18 (65% in Bangladesh, 57% in Nepal, 54% in Afghanistan, and almost 50% in India). One problem in assessing the prevalence of early marriages is that many are unregistered and unofficial and hence, are not a part of any data collection system. Very little data exists on marriages of children under the age of 10, even less on those below that age. Some countries do have data. According to BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢s demographic and health survey of 1996-1997, there are 28 million adolescents in Bangladesh, 13.7% of these are girls, and the survey reported that more than half the girls below 19 were married and 5% of 10-14 year old girls were married. Another survey of women 25-29 years old reported that in Bangladesh 81% were married before the age of 18. The lowest age at marriage is to be found in the western and southern parts of Bangladesh Ã¢â¬â specifically those adjoining India. In India, more than 57 per cent of girls are reported to get married before they turn 18. According to the Reproductive and Child Health District Level Household Survey, 28% girls overall, with 34.5% in rural and 13% in urban areas, are being married before they turned 18. According to a Rapid Household survey conducted across the country, 58.9% women in Bihar were married before the age of 18, 55.8% in Rajasthan, 54.9% in West Bengal, 53.8 % in Utter Pradesh, and 53.2% in Madhya Pradesh. National Family Health Survey data suggests that the median age for marriage in India is 16.4 years. This survey also found that 65% of the girls are married by the time they are 18. There are additional surveys like one in 1993 which reported that in the Indian state of Rajasthan, on 5,000 women 56% had married before age 15, and of these, 17% were married before they were 10. Another report indicated that nearly 14% of the girls in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest state (Uttar Pradesh) are married between the ages of 10-14 years, whereas in the central province of Madhya Pradesh, 11% of urban and 16.4% of rural girls are married between the ages of 10-14 years. In Nepal, the law has helped in increasing the age at marriage. However, the data which included female marriages at all ages showed that ethnicity is the major factor of age at marriage in Nepal. The ethnic groups are mostly concentrated in the Terai region, which borders India, and where the cultural norms and practices are highly influenced by the culture of north India. In contrast to other groups, especially in the mountain region, women belonging to the Terai groups are generally confined to farming; they exercise comparatively less control over the economic resources and decision-making. The most notable data from Nepal is 83.1% of girls of some ethnic groups marry before they are 15 years old. 79.6% Muslim girls marry before they are 15 years old. 69.7% girls in the mountainous and hilly regions marry at the age of 15 whereas 55.7% in rural Nepal marry before they turn 15. Early marriage is more common in Surkhet district of mid-western Nepal. One of the findings of the study is that higher caste girls do not feel the pressure to marry at a very young age and while they are in primary school. But when they reach 13 years, pressure is put on them especially if they fail their school exams. If they are doing well their parents will often let them continue with their studies. Lower caste girls have much higher pressure and less choice. A survey of adults 25-29 years old revealed that in Pakistan 37% of the girls were married before the legal age, which at the time was16. In Pakistan, as in other countries of South Asia, early marriage is more common in rural areas. Also people living in rural areas observe traditions more closely than those who live in urban areas. Causes Of Early Marriage Many reasons are given by parents and guardians to justify child marriage. Economic reasons often underpin these decisions which are directly linked to poverty and the lack of economic opportunities for girls in rural areas. Girls are either seen as an economic burden or valued as capital for their exchange value in terms of goods, money or livestock. A combination of cultural, traditional and religious arguments also justifies child marriage. The fear and stigma attached to premarital sex and bearing children outside marriage, and the associated family honor, are often seen as valid reasons for the actions that families take. Finally, many parents tend to curtail the education of their girls and marry them off, due to fear of exposure to sexual violence and abuse encountered. Early marriage as a strategy for economic reasons Poverty is one of the major factors underpinning early marriage. In many of the cases, the families are in poverty and one less daughter is one less mouth to feed. Poor families may regard young girls as an economic burden and the practice of early marriage, as an act of unburdening and a coping strategy. When poverty is acute, a young girlÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in the house is felt as unbearable and her marriage to a much older or even elderly man who can pay a very high price may be seen in her interest. Child marriage is valued as an economic coping strategy which reduces the costs of raising daughters. In this sense, poverty becomes a primary reason for child marriage because of perceived benefits to the family and the daughter. |Ethnicity/culture has emerged as the most complex reason for girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ early | |marriages. In fact at some places like the Terai region in Nepal, where | |the cultural norms and practices are highly influenced by the culture of | |north India, it has emerged even stronger than the socio-economic | |factors. It has been observed that ethnicity affects not only the age | |of marriage but the timing of family formation and entry into motherhood. | Marriage arrangements and requirements, such as dowry payments in parts of South Asia where parents of the young woman are obliged to give gifts to the spouse and his family, perpetuate child marriages. This is because the dowry requirement often increases with the age and the education level of the girl. Additionally, poor families tend to marry off girls at the same time to help reduce the burden of high marriage ceremony expenses. However, child brides are often more likely to experience domestic violence and least likely to take action against this abuse. The majority of affected girls become condemned to a life of financial and social insecurity. This is a real paradox for many parents, given that they marry off their daughters at a young age in the belief that this will enhance the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s and the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s security. Poverty ultimately fuels child marriage, which in turn perpetuates the feminization of poverty. In many villages that practice child marriage in Tamil Nadu State in India for example, girls are married off before they attain puberty because of the social stigma the community attaches to marriage after puberty. Many such marriages end in divorce. In case there is a large ageÃ¢â¬â¢s difference, the girls become widows at a young age. Custom forbids divorced or widowed women to remarry, further impoverishing them. Entrenched community norms and myths clearly help to perpetuate the practice of child marriage and related poverty. Son preference is very strong in many communities in South Asia, which may not be unrelated to the expenses involved when marrying off a daughter. The rising costs of marriage ceremonies force many families to marry their daughters at the same time to reduce costs. Boys forced into marriage early may also suffer financially. Economic responsibilities can place heavy burdens on them and curtail their education sooner than they might want. However, while boys can leave their wives at their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ homes and seek employment opportunities elsewhere, this option is not available to the majority of young wives. Marriage alliances and traditions Often marriage arrangements are made between families for dynastic, business, property or conflict resolutions. In Pakistan, India and Nepal, children may be betrothed or even married while toddlers or well below the age of 10. This custom is a means of consolidating powerful relations between families, making deals over land or other property, or settling disputes in the way routinely conducted between royal houses and aristocratic families throughout history. It may be a way of maintaining or fostering business ties with them. It may also be arranged as apart of the deal to settle a feud between two families. Early marriage as a way to ensure the protection of girls Early marriage is also one way to ensure that a wife is Ã¢â¬Å"protectedÃ¢â¬ or placed firmly under male control; that she is submissive to her husband and works hard for her in-lawsÃ¢â¬â¢ household; that the children she bears are Ã¢â¬ËlegitimateÃ¢â¬â¢ and that bonds of affection between couples do not undermine the family unit. It has been observed that in child marriages there is invariably a large gap between married women and their husbandsÃ¢â¬âbetween 7-9 years. The customary age difference helps to preserve the traditional cultural pattern of an older husband dominating a much younger wife. Social pressure appears to play a significant role in the girl getting married early. If girls remain unmarried by 15, neighbors, villagers and relatives begin to doubt her chastity and health. Parents are under huge pressure not to give a chance to the society to pass any aspersion on their girls. Early marriage is often a way of ensuring that the daughter is not at risk of losing her virginity in an irregular sexual encounter. For many communities, the loss of virginity in girls before marriage is the worst shame that can be brought upon a family. The desire to protect a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s virginity drives many parents to force their daughters into marriage at an extremely young age. For this reason and to control girlÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality, girls are married to prevent pre-marital sex or pregnancy. Once it is known in the village that a girl had pre-marital sexual relationship, it could be quite difficult to find a suitable boy who will be willing to marry her. Therefore parents willingly/unwillingly arrange early marriages to avoid such unpleasant situations. In rural communities, fetching water and firewood are usually chores undertaken by young girls. There is frequently a serious fear of their being raped. The rape will be devastating with enormous implications for the girl. In many communities the rape is not considered to be a crime against a girl but against her father, husband, or brothers. Situations of insecurity and acute poverty, particularly during disasters such as war, famine or the HIV and AIDS epidemic, can prompt parents to resort to child marriage as a protective mechanism or survival strategy. Among some populations which have been disrupted by war (Afghanistan), marrying a young daughter to a warlord or someone who can look after her may be a strategy for physical security or family support. In the worst cases, girls are abducted or kidnapped by armed militia or rebels and forced into temporary marriages which amount to Ã¢â¬Å"a combination of child prostitution and pure slavery.Ã¢â¬ Displaced populations living in refugee camps may feel unable to protect their daughters from rape, and so marriage to a warlord or other authority figure may provide improved protection. Consequences Of Early Marriage The consequences of child marriage are often far wider than just their impact on the individual children affected. The marriage of children has negative effects on families and communities. The practice thrives on poverty and impacts adversely on a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s health and education sector. Young girls are forced to marry men they have never met before and who may be many years older than they are. Once married, they are responsible for looking after their husbands, the house, and the children they give birth to while still children themselves. This is one of the reasons that offspring born too early in their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives are at increased risk of illness and death. These girls often have little knowledge about the responsibilities of being a wife and no information about sex and childbirth. Early forced sex as a violation of rights where a girl is married has not been recognized as a form of sexual abuse except where warlords or traffickers have recruited girls as sexual slaves. Early marriage is associated with a number of poor social and physical outcomes for young women and their offspring. They attain lower schooling, lower social status in their husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ families, have less reproductive control, and suffer higher rates of maternal mortality and domestic violence. They are often forced out of school without an education, their health is affected because their bodies are too immature to give birth. |Child marriage impedes the Millennium Development Goals | |(agreed by governments and the international community in | |September 2000). | | | |Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. | |Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education. | |Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. | |Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. | |Goal 5: Improve maternal health. | |Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. | Health and related outcomes The younger the boy or the girl is at the time of marriage, the worse is the abuse of child and human rights, both on grounds of lack of consent and on grounds of forced early sex. However, the implications for the females are much more severe. The younger the girl at the time of her first sexual relations Ã¢â¬â with early sex much more frequent and less likely to be consensual within marriage than outside marriage Ã¢â¬â the greater the chance of severe pain, physical damage, and of birthing complications and injury. Pregnancy and childbirth It is common sense to assume that girls who marry before 18 will usually have more children. Early child-bearing has long been seen as a risk to maternity, contributing significantly to large families. Since girls who are married young have a large number of child bearing years, they are more prone to miscarriage, infant death, malnutrition, cervical cancer, sterility, and maternal death. Even when girls are closer to the age of 18 but not yet that age, the risk remains. Girls between age 15 and 19 are twice as likely to die of pregnancy-related reasons as women between age 20 and 24. Child marriage is the leading cause of young women between the ages of 15 and 24 dying during pregnancy. Figure 4 Percentage of women age 15- 19 who have begun childbearing Selected countries in South Asia, 2004-2006 [pic] Not only the mothers but offspring born too early in their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives are at increased risk of illness and death. The babies of child brides are sicker, weaker and many do not survive childhood. Evidence shows that infant mortality among children of very young mothers is almost two times higher than among those of older peers. The health problems linked to early marriage not only affect the pregnant mother but also continue after child birth. Complications are more likely during pregnancy and birth purely because of the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s young age. A large proportion of reproductive and sexual health concerns of adolescent girls and women root from early marriage and early pregnancy. In the context of reproductive health girl spouses face well-acknowledged risks. These include the problem of giving birth when the pelvis and birth canal are still under-developed which leads to an increased risk of complications during delivery including protracted labor. Mothers aged less than 15 are especially vulnerable to fistulae Ã¢â¬â relentless pressure from babyÃ¢â¬â¢s skull can damage the birth canal causing breakages in the wall. A girl or a woman with this condition Ã¢ââ¬ irreversible without surgery Ã¢ââ¬ is not only in constant pain but will be socially ostracized and may well be divorced because of this. The perils of child marriage are not limited to only health complications during pregnancy and delivery period but in many cases during post-natal period as well. Because of the prolapsed uterus, they suffer from backaches, experience difficulties while walking, working and sitting for a long time. At times they had to give birth even after prolapsed uterus and this made the situation worse for them.  Child brides cannot negotiate the terms of sex with husbands who are usually older and have had previous sexual partners. They cannot insist on fidelity or condom use. Research in India (Calcutta) revealed that almost half of the women patients in the hospital interviewed had been married at or below the age of 15 with the youngest being married at 7 years. This age group has one of the highest rates of vulnerability to sexual violence in marriage, second only to those whose dowry had not been paid. The women had forced sexual intercourse before menstruation had started. The sex was early and painful and many still continued to be forced into sexual activity by their husbands. Although young girls had made their husbands aware of their unwillingness to have sex or of pain during sex, in 80% of these cases, the rapes continued. Increased risks of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV Early marriage threatens girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ health and the health of their children and thwarts efforts to combat HIV/AIDS. Of substantial consequences, yet largely ignored, is the fact that the majority of the sexually active girls aged 15-19 in South Asia are married and these adolescent girls tend to have higher rates of HIV infection than their sexually active unmarried peers. Early sexual activity within marriage is even more likely to expose young people to sexually transmitted infections than sex outside marriage. Crossing the threshold into marriage greatly intensifies sexual exposure via unprotected sex, often with an older partner, who by virtue of his age has an elevated risk of being HIV positive. This dramatic rise in the frequency of unprotected sex is driven by not only the implication of infidelity or distrust associated with certain forms of contraception such as condoms, but often also by a strong desire to become pregnant. Demographic and health survey data reveals that on an average 80% of unprotected sex encounters among adolescent girls occurred within marriage. Not only are married adolescents girls often isolated within their new households and from external public and private support but their needs have not been prioritized or sometimes even considered in current reproductive health initiatives. Moreover many of the most common HIV/AIDS policies and messages are not appropriate for them. Denial of education It is believed that investment in a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s education is wasted when she simply going to be married and work in another household. Girls reported that even if married girls are allowed to pursue their education, they cannot continue for too long because of the varied burdens imposed on her by early childbearing and the chores in the house. An important reason why girls in South Asia do not go to school or are withdrawn at puberty is for the assumption of domestic duties and confinement at home as prelude to marriage. Lack of exposure outside the immediate home environment means lower self-esteem, less sense of identity as an independent person with an independent mind, reduced socialization with peers and non-family adults, and considerably less knowledge of what early marriage entails. There is a clear connection between early marriage and low educational attainment. Early marriage puts the young girl at a disadvantage by the loss of educational opportunity. Often girls are not allowed to go to school which diminishes her opportunity to acquire critical life skills. Children benefit as much as their families, since a school-going child has been observed to be an agent of change in rural societies. A girl who is educated will most likely educate her daughter and thus establishes an inter-generational trend of educating girls. Besides, the correlation between the number of years of a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling and the postponement of marriage is shown to be firmly established by demographic and fertility studies36. A one year postponement of marriage increases schooling by 0.32 years and literacy by 5-10%.
Friday, November 15, 2019
What is nothing? Though at first, the response may seem like little more than a play on words, the simple answer is this: Nothing is not. No word such as anything or everything can be added at the end of the statement to further clarify the crucial concept, which is non-existence: the dictionary definition of nothing. In actuality, though, although the denotation of "nothing" insists on absolute absence and void, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society "nothing" is actually quite present, masquerading as something indeed. Of course, there are concepts in existence that accurately represent our limited understanding of nothing. One such concept is zero. In a simple counting sense, when one, two, or eight hundred items could be present, but there arenÃ¢â¬â¢t any, there are zero. Zero items are present, and nothing is there. Kept strictly in a counting sense, this works. Zero is non-existence. Yet, in the actual study of mathematics, one learns that zero may be many things, but never nothing at all. Zero is perhaps the most powerful number in all of mathematics, and its influence on the way we work with numbers is clear. Multiply a number, any number, from the greatest to the small, from positive to negative infinity, by zero. Divide zero by any of these numbers. Zero absolves, absorbs, changes said number completely - it becomes zero. Surely, such a drastic effect cannot be the result of nothing. Divide by zero. Or attempt to, anyway, and find it impossible, "undefined." A graphed function involving a division of zero will form unreachable vertical asymptotes that stretch to positive and negative infinity. Zero, though, does have its weaknesses. Add zero, subtract zero, itÃ¢â¬â¢s all the same: no effect at all. The other numbers or variables invo... ...tranger. San Francisco: Knopf, 1998. Descartes, RenÃ ©. Descartes: Selections. Ed. Ralph M. Eaton. San Francisco: Charles ScribnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons, 1927. Family Medical Guide. Lincolnwood: Publications International, Ltd., 1990. Miller, Charles D. and Margaret L. Lial. Fundamentals of College Algebra. Third Edition. Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1990. Naparstek, Belleruth. Your Sixth Sense. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1997. Reid, Constance. From Zero to Infinity: What Makes Numbers Interesting. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1964. Satre, Jean-Paul. "Nausea." Nausea, The Wall, and Other Stories. New York: MJF Books, 1964. Twain, Mark. "The Mysterious Stranger." Great Short Works of Mark Twain. Ed. Justin Kaplan. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1967. "Vacuum." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Fifth Edition. Columbia University Press, 1993.